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The Effect of Strain, Affect, and Personal/Social Resources on Problem Substance Use among Incarcerated and Non-Incarcerated Youth

Published in , 2020

We explore the applicability of General Strain Theory to juvenile substance use. In doing so, we offer three advances over prior work. First, we put forward the concept of “problem substance use” to move beyond frequency-based and more medicalized conceptions of the phenomenon toward a conceptualization that views substance use as problematic when it disrupts social relationships and expectations and when it reflects a loss of self-control. Second, we employ a dataset that permits us to explore how strains originating in different life domains influence problem substance use as well as how negative emotions and personal coping resources mediate the relationship between strain and problem substance use. Third, we move beyond prior work by comparing how strain and strain mediators operate differently in schools, alternative learning centers, and juvenile correctional facilities. We find strong effects of the strain variables and strain mediators indicated by General Strain Theory and evidence that alternative learning centers and juvenile correction facilities are associated with especially high odds of problem substance use even when strain and other variables are controlled. We conclude by discussing the limitations of current work and the implications for next steps in the strain-substance use research literature.

Recommended citation: Franco, Konrad and Ryken Grattet (2020). "The Effect of Strain, Affect, and Personal/Social Resources on Problem Substance Use among Incarcerated and Non-Incarcerated Youth" Deviant Behavior. 41:10, 1207-1220. https://doi.org/10.1080/01639625.2019.1603539

Punishing Status and the Punishment Status Quo: Solitary Confinement in U.S. Immigration Prisons, 2013-2017

Published in , 2020

This study provides the first systematic, nationally representative analysis of administrative records of solitary confinement placements in any carceral setting. We examine patterns in who experiences solitary confinement in Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) custody, as well as the stated reason for, and length of, their confinement. We reveal several findings. First, cases involving individuals with mental illnesses are overrepresented, more likely to occur without infraction, and to last longer, compared to cases involving individuals without mental illnesses. Second, solitary confinement cases involving immigrants from Africa and the Caribbean are vastly overrepresented in comparison to the share of these groups in the overall detained population, and African immigrants are more likely to be confined for disciplinary reasons, compared to the average. Finally, placement patterns vary significantly by facility and institution type, with private facilities more likely to solitarily confine people without infraction, compared to public facilities. This study offers a lens through which to more precisely theorize the legal boundary-blurring of crimmigration and the relationship between prison and immigration detention policies, to better understand the practice of solitary confinement across carceral contexts, and to analyze the relationship between national-level policy and on-the-ground implementation.

Recommended citation: Franco, Konrad, Caitlin Patler, and Keramet Reiter (2020). "Punishing Status and the Punishment Status Quo: Solitary Confinement in U.S. Immigration Prisons, 2013-2017" Punishment & Society. In Press. doi:10.1177/1462474520967804

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teaching

Teaching experience 1

Undergraduate course, University 1, Department, 2014

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Teaching experience 2

Workshop, University 1, Department, 2015

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